Volume 4, Issue 2, June 2018, Page: 5-12
Dietary Patterns and Their Association with Blood Pressure Control among Hypertensive Patients in Gaza Strip, Palestine
Abdel Hamid El Bilbeisi, Department of Clinical Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, International Campus (TUMS- IC), Tehran, Iran
Saeed Hosseini, Department of Clinical Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, International Campus (TUMS- IC), Tehran, Iran
Kurosh Djafarian, Department of Clinical Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, International Campus (TUMS- IC), Tehran, Iran
Received: Aug. 22, 2018;       Accepted: Sep. 3, 2018;       Published: Oct. 8, 2018
DOI: 10.11648/j.jfmhc.20180402.11      View  962      Downloads  88
Background: Silent killer, or hypertension, rarely has noticeable symptoms. But if untreated, it increases the risk of serious problems such as heart attacks and strokes. Globally, the World Health Organization estimates that, the overall prevalence of hypertension was around 40% in adults. However, the role of diet in the origin of hypertension is not understood well. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to identify major dietary patterns among hypertensive patients and its association with blood pressure control in Gaza Strip, Palestine. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted among a representative sample of Palestinian hypertensive patients (both genders, aged 30 - 64 years), patients receiving care in the primary healthcare centers in Gaza Strip, Palestine. Dietary patterns were obtained using factor analysis. Data regarding other variables was collected using an interview-based questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 20. Results: Two major dietary patterns were identified, including: Asian-like pattern and sweet-soft drinks-snacks pattern. After adjustment of potential confounders, patients in the lowest tertile of the Asian-like pattern had a lower odds for high systolic blood pressure, (OR 0.970 CI 95% (.951-.990)), (P value < 0.05). No significant association was found between the Asian-like pattern with diastolic blood pressure. In addition, no significant associations were found between the sweet-soft drinks snacks pattern and blood pressure. Conclusion: The Asian-like pattern characterized by a high consumption of whole grains, potatoes, vegetables, fruit and olive may be associated with a lower prevalence of systolic blood pressure among hypertensive patients. Further future studies are required to confirm these findings.
Blood Pressure, Dietary Patterns, Factor Analysis, Hypertension, Palestine
To cite this article
Abdel Hamid El Bilbeisi, Saeed Hosseini, Kurosh Djafarian, Dietary Patterns and Their Association with Blood Pressure Control among Hypertensive Patients in Gaza Strip, Palestine, Journal of Family Medicine and Health Care. Vol. 4, No. 2, 2018, pp. 5-12. doi: 10.11648/j.jfmhc.20180402.11
Copyright © 2018 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Kearney PM, Whelton M, Reynolds K, Muntner P, Whelton PK, He J. Global burden of hypertension: analysis of worldwide data. The lancet. 2005;365(9455):217-23.
Organization WH. Chronic Disease and Health Promotion. Global Infobase. Available at: https://apps.who.int/infobase/Index.aspx. Accessed 1 December 2017.
O'brien E, Pickering T, Asmar R, Myers M, Parati G, Staessen J, Mengden T, Imai Y, Waeber B, Palatini P, et al. Working Group on Blood Pressure Monitoring of the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol for validation of blood pressure measuring devices in adults. Blood pressure monitoring. 2002;7(1):3-17.
Organization WH. Raised blood pressure. Global Health Observatory data. Available at: http://www.who.int/gho/ncd/risk_factors/bloodpressure prevalencetext/en/. Accessed 1 December 2017.
Organization WH. Causes of Death 2008. Available at: http ://www.who.int/healthinfo/global_burden_disease/cod_2008_sources_methods.pdf. Accessed 1 December 2017.
Lim SS, Vos T, Flaxman AD, Danaei G, Shibuya K, Adair-Rohani H, Amann M, Anderson HR, Andrews KG, Aryee M, et al. A comparative risk assessment of burden of disease and injury attributable to 67 risk factors and risk factor clusters in 21 regions, 1990–2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. The lancet. 2013;380(9859):2224-60.
Organization WH. A Global Brief on Hypertension: Silent Killer. Global Public Health Crisis, World Health Organization (WHO), Geneva. 2013.
Khdour M, Hallak H, Shaeen M, Jarab A, Al-Shahed Q. Prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension in the Palestinian population. Journal of human hypertension. 2013;27(10):623-8.
Hu FB. Dietary pattern analysis: a new direction in nutritional epidemiology. Current opinion in lipidology. 2002;13(1):3-9.
Kant AK. Dietary patterns and health outcomes. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 2004;104(4):615-35.
Newby P, Tucker KL. Empirically derived eating patterns using factor or cluster analysis: a review. Nutrition reviews. 2004;62(5):177-203.
Council NR. Diet and health: implications for reducing chronic disease risk: National Academies Press; 1989.
Conlin PR, Chow D, Miller ER, Svetkey LP, Lin P-H, Harsha DW, Moore TJ, Sacks FM, Appel LJ. The effect of dietary patterns on blood pressure control in hypertensive patients: results from the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) trial. American journal of hypertension. 2000;13(9):949-55.
NIH U. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Your guide to lowering your blood pressure with DASH. DASH eating plan. 2006.
Streppel MT, Arends LR, van’t Veer P, Grobbee DE, Geleijnse JM. Dietary fiber and blood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials. Archives of internal medicine. 2005;165(2):150-6.
Ha SK. Dietary salt intake and hypertension. Electrolytes & Blood Pressure. 2014;12(1):7-18.
Xiong X, Wang P, Li X, Zhang Y, Li S. The effects of red yeast rice dietary supplement on blood pressure, lipid profile, and C-reactive protein in hypertension: A systematic review. Critical reviews in food science and nutrition. 2017;57(9):1831-51.
Borgi L, Muraki I, Satija A, Willett WC, Rimm EB, Forman JP. Fruit and vegetable consumption and the incidence of hypertension in three prospective cohort studies. Hypertension. 2015: HYPERTENSIONAHA. 115.06497.
Ministry of health. The annual report of the hospital general administration. 2013; available at: http://www.moh.ps/?Lang=0&page=1&id=155. Accessed 1 May 2017.
El Bilbeisi AH, Hosseini S, Djafarian K. Association of dietary patterns with diabetes complications among type 2 diabetes patients in Gaza Strip, Palestine: a cross sectional study. Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition. 2017; 36(1):37.
Cade J, Thompson R, Burley V, Warm D. Development, validation and utilisation of food-frequency questionnaires–a review. Public health nutrition. 2002;5(4):567-87.
Wakai K. A review of food frequency questionnaires developed and validated in Japan. Journal of epidemiology. 2009;19(1):1-11.
Hamdan M, Monteagudo C, Lorenzo-Tovar M-L, Tur J-A, Olea-Serrano F, Mariscal-Arcas M. Development and validation of a nutritional questionnaire for the Palestine population. Public health nutrition. 2014;17(11):2512-8.
Craig CL, Marshall AL, Sjorstrom M, Bauman AE, Booth ML, Ainsworth BE, Pratt M, Ekelund U, Yngve A, Sallis JF, Oja P. International physical activity questionnaire: 12-country reliability and validity. Medicine and science in sports and exercise. 2003;35(8):1381-95.
Ghasemi A, Tohidi M, Derakhshan A, Hasheminia M, Azizi F, Hadaegh F. Cut-off points of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, beta-cell function, and fasting serum insulin to identify future type 2 diabetes: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. Acta diabetologica. 2015;52(5):905-15.
Nicklas T, Webber L, Thompson B, Berenson G. A multivariate model for assessing eating patterns and their relationship to cardiovascular risk factors: the Bogalusa Heart Study. The American journal of clinical nutrition. 1989;49(6):1320-7.
Hebert JR, Kabat GC. Implications for cancer epidemiology of differences in dietary intake associated with alcohol consumption. 1991.
Kim J-O, Mueller CW. Factor analysis: Statistical methods and practical issues: Sage; 1978.
Kleinbaum D, Kupper L, Nizam A, Rosenberg E. Applied regression analysis and other multivariable methods: Nelson Education; 2013.
Jacques PF, Tucker KL. Are dietary patterns useful for understanding the role of diet in chronic disease? : Am Soc Nutrition; 2001.
Abdollahi S, Zeinali F, Azam K, Toupchian O, Djafarian K. Identifying major dietary patterns among the elderly in Tehran health homes. Jundishapur Journal of Health Sciences. 2015;7(4).
Hosseyni Esfahani F, Jazayeri A, Mirmiran P, Mehrabi Y, Azizi F. Dietary patterns and their association with socio-demographic and lifestyle factors among Thehrani adults: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. Journal of School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research. 2008;6(1):23-36.
ESMAEILLZADEH A, AZADBAKHT L, KHOSHFETRAT MR, KIMIAGAR M. Major dietary patterns, general and central adiposity among tehrani female teachers. 2011.
Ndanuko RN, Tapsell LC, Charlton KE, Neale EP, Batterham MJ. Dietary patterns and blood pressure in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Advances in Nutrition: An International Review Journal. 2016;7(1):76-89.
Sacks FM, Appel LJ, Moore TJ, Obarzanek E, Vollmer WM, Svetkey LP, Bray GA, Vogt TM, Cutler JA, Windhauser MM, et al. A dietary approach to prevent hypertension: a review of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) Study. Clinical cardiology. 1999;22(S3):6-10.
Safdar NF, Bertone-Johnson ER, Cordeiro L, Jafar TH, Cohen NL. Dietary patterns and their association with hypertension among Pakistani urban adults. Asia Pacific journal of clinical nutrition. 2015;24(4):710-9.
Wang D, He Y, Li Y, Luan D, Yang X, Zhai F, and Guansheng Ma. Dietary patterns and hypertension among Chinese adults: a nationally representative cross-sectional study. BMC public health. 2011;11(1):925.
Shin J-Y, Kim J-M, Kim Y. Associations between dietary patterns and hypertension among Korean adults: the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008-2010). Nutrition research and practice. 2013;7(3):224-32.
Appel LJ, Moore TJ, Obarzanek E, Vollmer WM, Svetkey LP, Sacks FM, Bray GA, Vogt TM, Cutler JA, Windhauser MM, et al. A clinical trial of the effects of dietary patterns on blood pressure. New England Journal of Medicine. 1997;336(16):1117-24.
Asemi Z, Samimi M, Tabassi Z, Shakeri H, Sabihi S-S, Esmaillzadeh A. Effects of DASH diet on lipid profiles and biomarkers of oxidative stress in overweight and obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized clinical trial. Nutrition. 2014;30(11):1287-93.
Pischke CR, Weidner G, Elliott-Eller M, Scherwitz L, Merritt-Worden TA, Marlin R, Lee Lipsenthal, Robert C. Finkel, Donald Saunders, Patty McCormac, et al. Comparison of coronary risk factors and quality of life in coronary artery disease patients with versus without diabetes mellitus. The American journal of cardiology. 2006;97(9):1267-73.
Williams DE, Prevost AT, Whichelow MJ, Cox BD, Day NE, Wareham NJ. A cross-sectional study of dietary patterns with glucose intolerance and other features of the metabolic syndrome. British Journal of Nutrition. 2000;83(3):257-66.
Browse journals by subject