Volume 6, Issue 3, September 2020, Page: 87-90
Breast Pathologies and Inadequate Breastfeeding Practices: A Survey Among a Group of Newly Delivered Women in Yaoundé, Cameroon
Georges Pius Kamsu Moyo, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaounde 1, Yaounde, Cameroon
Received: Jun. 22, 2020;       Accepted: Jul. 7, 2020;       Published: Jul. 23, 2020
DOI: 10.11648/j.jfmhc.20200603.16      View  165      Downloads  38
Breastfeeding women may develop a number of breast disorders during the postpartum period. Such disorders could involve masses of varying sizes, breastmilk secretion anomalies and painful-inflammatory or infectious conditions. Though very few of these conditions may be absolute contraindications to breastfeeding, they are however a significant source of worry for newly delivered women and may disrupt the breastfeeding process. This survey aimed to investigate breast anomalies in women with inadequate breastfeeding practices. We conducted a cross-sectional study from December 2018 to May 2019 at the Yaoundé Gynaeco-Obtetric and Paediatric Hospital. Mothers with livebirth neonate infants weighing > 2000g and with no initial contraindication to breastfeeding were included. A total of 250 mothers were enrolled in the survey. Delivery was eutocic in 230 (92%) women and 199 (79.6%) had the intension to exclusively breastfeed their babies. The state of the neonates was satisfactory in 204 (96%) deliveries. However, inadequate breastfeeding was noted in 153 mothers (61.2%), with breast pathologies occurring in 85 women (55.5%), among which 24 (28.2%) had secretion anomalies predominated by quantitative disorders. Painful inflammatory and/or infectious conditions occurred in 58 women (69.4%) including nipple crevices, breast engorgement, inverted nipples, mastitis and abscess. All women with obvious or supposed breast disorders had inadequate breastfeeding practices. Therefore, painful breast pathologies and secretion disorders should firstly be investigated in women with eutocic delivery, who are willing to breastfeed, but unable to do so adequately. More so, these pathologies are essentially benign and may be prevented by good hygiene, adequate breastfeeding techniques such as proper nipple and areolar positioning into the baby’s mouth.
Breast Pathologies, Breastfeeding, Lactation
To cite this article
Georges Pius Kamsu Moyo, Breast Pathologies and Inadequate Breastfeeding Practices: A Survey Among a Group of Newly Delivered Women in Yaoundé, Cameroon, Journal of Family Medicine and Health Care. Vol. 6, No. 3, 2020, pp. 87-90. doi: 10.11648/j.jfmhc.20200603.16
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Victora C, Sankar M, Rollins N, Murch S, Krasevec J, Horton S, et al. Breastfeeding in the 21st century: epidemiology, mechanisms, and lifelong effect. Lancet. 2016; 387 (10017): 475–90.
World Health Organization. Effect of breastfeeding on infant and child mortality due to infectious diseases in less developed countries: a pooled analysis. WHO collaborative study team on the role of breastfeeding on the prevention of infant mortality. Lancet. 2000; 355 (9202): 451–5.
Patel A, Bucher S, Pusdekar Y, Esamai F, Krebs N, Goudar S, et al. Rates and determinants of early initiation of breastfeeding and exclusive breast feeding at 42 days postnatal in six low and middle-income countries: a prospective cohort study. Reprod Health. 2015; 12 (1): 2–9.
Mullany L, Katz J, Li Y, Khatry S, LeClerq S, Darmstadt G. Breast-feeding patterns, time to initiation, and mortality risk among newborns in southern Nepal. J Nutr. 2008; 138 (3): 599–603.
Baker E, Sanei L, Franklin N. Early initiation of and exclusive breastfeeding in large-scale community-based programmes in Bolivia and Madagascar. J Health Popul Nutr. 2006; 24 (4): 530–9.
Edmond K, Zandoh C, Quigley M, Amenga-Etego S, Owusu-Agyei S,, Kirkwood B. Delayed breastfeeding initiation increases risk of neonatal mortality. Pediatrics. 2006; 117 (3): 380–6.
Ji Hoon Yu, Min Jeong Kim, Hyonil Cho, Hyun Ju Liu, Sei-Jun Han, Tae-Gyu Ahn. Breast diseases during pregnancy and lactation. Obstet Gynecol Sci 2013; 56 (3): 143-159.
Bimerew A, Teshome M, Kassa G. Prevalence of timely breastfeeding initiation and associated factors in Dembecha district, North West Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study. Int Breastfeed J. 2016; 11: 28.
Constance A, Gewa M, Monica O, Lauren S. Determinants of Early Child-Feeding Practices Among HIV-Infected and Non infected Mothers in Rural Kenya. J Hum Lact. 2011; 27 (3): 239–49.
Odent M. Césariennes. Questions, effets, enjeux. Alerte face à la banalisation. Le Souffle d’Or. Barret-sur-Méouge: Elsevier Masson; 2005. 200 p.
Stone K, Wheeler A. A review of anatomy, physiology, and benign pathology of the nipple. Ann Surg Oncol 2015; 22: 3236–3240.16.
Silva JR, Carvalho R, Maia C, et al. Rusty pipe syndrome, a cause of bloody nipple discharge: Case report. Breastfeed Med 2014; 9: 411–412.
Kline TS, Lash SR. The bleeding nipple of pregnancy and postpartum period: A cytologic and histologic study. Acta Cytol 1964; 8: 336–340.
Mitchell KB, Johnson HM, Eglash A. ABM Clinical Protocol #30: Breast Masses, Breast Complaints, and Diagnostic Breast Imaging in the Lactating Woman. Breastfeed Med. 2019; 4 (4).
Santos Kamilia Juliana da Silva, Santana Gessica Silva, Vieira Tatiana Oliveira, Santa Carlos, Antonio de Souza Teles, Gingliani Elsa Regina Justo, Vieira Graciete Olivieira. Prevalence and factors associated with cracked nipples in the first month of postpartum. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. 2016; 16 (1): 209.
Williams Obstetrics (24th ed). Mc Grow-Hill Professional. 2014. pp. Chapter 37. ISBN 978-0-07-179893-8.
Mangesi Lindeka, Zakarija-Grkovic, Irena. Treatments for breast engorgement during lactation. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2016. CD006946.
Geffroy D, Doutriaux-Dumoulins I. Clinical abnormalities of the nipple-areola complex: Diagn Interv Imaging. 2015; 96: 1033-1044.
Kvist LJ, Larsson BW, Hall-Lord ML, Steen A, Schalen C. The role of bacteria in lactational mastitis and some considerations of the use of antibiotic treatment. Int Breastfeed J. 2008; 3: 6.
Joshi S, Dialani V, Marotti J, Mehta TS, Slanetz PJ. Breast disease in the pregnant and lactating patient: radiological-pathological correlation. Insights Imaging (2013) 4: 527–538.
Scott-Conner CE. Diagnosing and managing breast dis¬ease during pregnancy and lactation. Medscape Wom¬ens Health 1997; 2: 1.
Stafford I, Hernandez J, Laibl V, Sheffield J, Roberts S, Wendel G Jr. Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among patients with puerperal mastitis requiring hospitalization. Obstet Gynecol. 2008; 112: 533-7.
Dehner LP, Hill DA, Deschryver K. Pathology of the breast in children, adolescents, and young adults. Semin Diagn Pathol 1999; 16: 235-47.
Saglam A, Can B. Coexistence of lactating adenoma and invasive ductal adenocarcinoma of the breast in a pregnant woman. J Clin Pathol 2005; 58: 87-9.
Hogge JP, De Paredes ES, Magnant CM, Lage J. Imaging and Management of Breast Masses During Pregnancy and Lactation. Breast J 1999; 5: 272-83.
Browse journals by subject