Volume 6, Issue 3, September 2020, Page: 97-105
Chemical Functional and Sensory Properties of Complementary Diets from Blends of Fermented Millet (Penniselum glaucum) with Groundnut (Arachis hypogeae) and Moringa oleifera Seed Flours
Makanju Dehinde Awogbenja, Department of Home Science and Management, Faculty of Agriculture, Nasarawa State University, Shabu-Lafia Campus, Lafia, Nigeria
Oluwatooyin Faramade Osundahunsi, Department of Food Science and Technology, School of Agriculture and Agricultural Technology, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria
Tayo Nathaniel Fagbemi, Department of Food Science and Technology, School of Agriculture and Agricultural Technology, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria
Received: Jul. 6, 2020;       Accepted: Jul. 20, 2020;       Published: Aug. 10, 2020
DOI: 10.11648/j.jfmhc.20200603.18      View  203      Downloads  91
Malnutrition resulting mostly from poor infant feeding practices is a major public health problem in Nigeria. This study evaluated the nutritional and functional properties of flour blends prepared from fermented millet, groundnut and Moringa oleifera, as well as attributes of the gruel obtained from the composite flour. Seven blends were formulated using NutriSurvey for Linear Programming Software and compared with Ogi (traditional complementary food) and cerelac (commercial flour). Data were analyzed using statistical packages, means values separated using Ducan’s New Multiple Range (DNMR) test at P<0.05. Protein, fat, fibre and ash content of the formulated samples ranged from 18.18-20.46, 10.89-20.72, 3.44-3.89, and 1.62-3.30g/100g, respectively, and all were significantly higher (P<0.05) than in ogi (7.08, 5.61, 0.92 and 1.18), while energy values (Kcal/100g) ranged between 427.17 and 481.16. Calcium, phosphorous, zinc and iron content of the formulated samples were significantly higher P<0.05) than in ogi, but lower to cerelac. Bulk density, water absorption capacity, least gelation and swelling capacity of the blends ranged from 0.75-0.81g/ml, 2.81-4.24ml/g, 12.33-18.67% and 3.01-5.91% respectively. Sensory evaluation indicated that the samples were highly rated (P 0.05) with sensory scores of above 5.00 for all the sensory attributes investigated. The study shows that the formulated samples are of high nutrient dense products and possess good functional and sensory properties which are needed for the production of complementary foods for infants and older children.
Millet, Moringa oleifera, Fermentation, Functional Properties
To cite this article
Makanju Dehinde Awogbenja, Oluwatooyin Faramade Osundahunsi, Tayo Nathaniel Fagbemi, Chemical Functional and Sensory Properties of Complementary Diets from Blends of Fermented Millet (Penniselum glaucum) with Groundnut (Arachis hypogeae) and Moringa oleifera Seed Flours, Journal of Family Medicine and Health Care. Vol. 6, No. 3, 2020, pp. 97-105. doi: 10.11648/j.jfmhc.20200603.18
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Okoye J. I., Ezigbo V. O., Animalu I. L. (2010). Development and quality evaluation of weaning food fortified with African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) flour. Continental J. Agricultural Science. 4: 1-6.
Stewart C. P., Iannotti L., Dewey K. G., Michealsen K. F., Onyango A. W. (2013). Contextualising Complementary feeding in a broader framework for stunting prevention. Maternal and Child Nutrition. 9 (Suppl. 2): 27-45.
Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (2018). National Population Commission Federal Republic of Nigeria Abuja, Nigeria. MEASURE DHS, ICF Macro Calverton Maryland, USA.
Omotoye F. E and Adesanmi R. A. S. (2019). Infarct and Young Child Feeding Practices in two Local Government Areas in South-west Nigeria. Journal of Food Science and Nutrition Research. 2 (2): 236-14.
Issaka A. I., Agho K. E., Page A. N., Burns P. L., Stevens G. J., Dibley M. J. (2015). The problem of suboptimal complementary feeding practices in West Africa: what is the way forward?. Maternal and Child Nutrition. 11 (suppl. 1). 53-60.
Nnam, N. M. (2002). Evaluation of complementary foods based on maize, groundnut, pawpaw and mango flour blends. Nigerian. Journal of Nutritional Science, 22 and 23: 8-18.
Gibson R. S., Yeudall F., Drost N., Mitimuni B., Cullinan T. 1998. Complementary foods for infant feeding in developing countries: their nutrient adequacy and improvement. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 52: 164–170.
Kumari V., Sindhu S. C., Singh J. (2017). Nutritional evaluation of indigenously developed weaning food from malted sorghum incorporated with soybean and raw banana flour. International journal of current Microbiology and Applied Sciences 06 (06): 12.
Osundahunsi O. F., Aworh A. C. (2002). A Preliminary Study on the use of Tempe-Based Formula-Plant Foods and Human Nutrition, 57 (3-4): 365-376.
Ajibola C. F., Fagbemi T. N., Osundahunsi O. F. (2016) Nutritional quality of weaning Foods formulated from Maize gruel ‘Ogi’ and Crayfish using combined traditional processing technology. Advances in Research. 6 (4): 1-11.
Solomon M. (2005). Nutritive Value of three potential complementary foods based on cereals and legumes. In African Journal of Food and Nutritional Sciences. 5 (2): 1-14.
Odinakachukwu I. C., Nnam N. N., Ibeziako N., Aloysius M. N. (2014). Analysis of the Nutrient Content of Infant Complementary Food Fortificant-Moringa oleifera Leaves with the Commonly Consumed Local Infants Foods in Nigeria: Zea mays and Glycine max. International Journal of Tropical Disease and Health 4 (10): 1111-1122.
Ikujenlola A. V., Adurotoye E. A. (2014). Evaluation of Quality Characteristics of High Nutrient Dense Complementary Food from Mixtures of Malted Quality Protein Maize (Zea mays L.) and Steamed Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata). J Food Process Technol 5: 291, 1-5 doi: 10.4172/2157-7110.1000291.
Ojokoh A. O., Fayemi O. E., Ocloo F. C. K., Nwokolo F. I. (2015). Effect of fermentation on proximate composition, physicochemical and microbial characteristics of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.) and Acha (Digitaria exilis (Kippist) Stapf) flour blends. Journal of Agricultural Biotechnology and sustainable Development. 7 (1): 1-8.
Ijarotimi O. S., Adeoti O. A., Ariyo O. (2013). Comparative study on nutrient Composition, phytochemical, and functional characteristics of raw, germinated and fermented Moringa oleifera seed flour. Food Science & Nutrition. I (6): 452-463.
Erhardt, J. Nutrisurvey software version. (2007). [Updated 2012/04/04; cited 2007/08/08]; Retrieved on 2014 from http://www.nutrisurvey.de.
Darmon N., Ferguson E., Briend A. (2002). Linear and nonlinear programming to optimize the nutrient density of a population’s diet: an example based on diets of preschool children in rural Malawi. Am J Clin Nutr., 75: 245–53.
Amankwah E. A., Barimah J., Acheampong R., Addai L. O., Nnaji C. O. (2009). Effect of Fermentation and Malting on the Viscosity of Maize-Soyabean Weaning Blends. Pakistan. journal Nutrition. 8 (10): 1671-1675.
AOAC. (2005). Association of Official Analytical Chemist, Official Methods of Analysis, 18th Ed. AOAC international, Suite 500, 481 North Frederick Avenue, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20877-2417, USA.
Ikujenlola, A. V and Ogunba, O. B. (2018). Potential Complementary Food from Quality Protein Maize (Zea mays L.) Supplemented with Sesame (Sesamum indicum) and Mushroom (Oudemansiella radicata). Journal of Nutrition & Food Sciences, 8: 698-.610
Osman M. A (2011). Effect of Traditional Fermentation Process on the Nutrient and Anti-nutrient Content of Pearl Millet during Preparation of Lohoh. Journal of the society of Agricultural Sciences, 10: 1-6.
Popova A and Mihaylova D (2019). Anti-nutrient in plant-based foods: A review. The Open Biotechnology Journal, 13: 68-76.
Oyarekua M. A. (2013). Comparative studies of co-fermented maize/pigeon pea and maize/mucuna as infants complementary foods. Wudpecker Journal of Food Technology Vol. 1 (1): 001–008.
Awogbenja. M. D, Unogw, O. G and Ikape S. I (2018) Proximate micronutrient functional properties of roasted and sundry ground nut (Arachis hypogaea) flours. Proceeding of the 36th annual conference of Horticultural Society of Nigeria. 709-716.
Zakari U. M., Hassan A., Kida F. (2018). Chemical composition, functional and organoleptic properties of complementary foods formulated from millet, soybean and African locust bean fruit pulp flour blends. Afr. J. of Food Science. 12 (6): 126-130.
Msheliza, E. A., Hussein, J. B., Ilesanmi, J and Nkama, I. (2018). Effect of Fermentation and Roasting on the Physicochemical Properties of Weaning Food Produced from Blends of Sorghum and Soybean. Journal of Nutrition & Food Science, 8: 681.
Ayodele, I. M; Aderoju, A. A; Kehinde, O. E; Joseph, A. A and Adewale, O. S. (2019). Functional and pasting properties of wheat/tigernut pomace flour blends and sensory attributes of wheat / tiger nut pomace flour meat pie. Croatian Journal of Food Science and Technology, 11 (1) 30-36.
Ihekoronye A. I., Ngoddy P. O. (1985). Integrated Food Science and Technology for the Tropics. Macmillan Publishers, London, pp: 180-191, 270-274.
FAO/WHO (1991). CODEX CAC/GL 08, 1991. Codex Alimentarius: Guidelines on Formulated Supplementary Foods for Older Infants and Young Children. Vol. 4, FAO/WHO Joint Publications: 144.
Famakin O., Fatoyinbo A., Ijarotimi O. S., Badejo A. A., Fagbemi T. N. (2016). Assessment of nutritional quality, glycaemic index, antidiabetic and sensory properties of plantain (Musa paradisiaca)-based functional dough meals. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 53 (11): 3865–3875.
Anigo K. M., Ameh D. A., Ibrahim S., Danbauchi S. S. (2009). Infant feeding practices and nutritional status of children in North Western Nigeria. In Asian Journal Clinical Nutrition. 1 (1): 12-22.
Shiriki D., Igyor M. A., Gernah D. I. (2015). Nutritional evaluation of complementary food formulation from Maize, Soybean and Peanut fortified with Moringa oleifera leaf powder. Food and Nutrition Sciences. 6: 494-500.
Onabanjo O. O., Akinyemi C. O., Agbon, C. A. (2009). Characteristics of complementary foods produced from sorghum, sesame, carrot and crayfish. J. Nat. Sci. Engr. Tech., 8 (1): 71-83.
Ibironke S. I. (2014). Formulation of infant weaning foods from vegetable proteins and cereal. American Journal of Food Technology. 9 (2): 104-110.
Comparore W. R., Nikiema P. A., Bassole H. I. N., Savadogo A., Mouecoucou J., Hounhouigan D. J., Traore S. A. (2011). Chemical Composition and Antioxidative Properties of seeds of Moringa oleifera and pulps of Parkia biglobosa and Adansonia digitata Commonly used in Food Fortification in Burkina Faso. Current Research Journal of Biological Sciences 3 (1): 64-72.
FAO/WHO. (1998). Preparation and use of Food-Based Dietary Guidelines. Report of a Joint FAO/WHO Consultation. WHO Technical Report series 880. Geneva. 1998.
Addis G., Singh V., Pratape, V., Srivastava A., Gowda L; Asha M., Bhattacharya S. (2013). Development and functional properties of low- cost complementary food, Afr. J. Food. Sci. Vol. 7 (9) pg 274-284.
Nieman D. C., Butterworth D. E., Nieman C. N. (1992). Nutrition. WmC. Brown, Dbugye, USA, 237-312.
Ikese O., Ubwa S., Adoga S., Lenka J., Inalegwu J., Ocheje M., Inegedu M. (2016). proximate composition, antinutrients and some functional properties of a potential infant food made from wheat and groundnut. International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition. 1; (5) 59-63.
Temesgen M. (2013). Nutritional Status of Ethiopian Weaning and Complementary Foods: A Review. 2: 621 doi: 10.4172/scientificreports.621.
Anigo K. M, Ameh D. A., Ibrahim S., Danbauchi S. S. (2010). Nutrient composition of complementary food gruels formulated from malted cereals, soybeans and groundnut for use in North-western Nigeria. African Journal of Food Science. 4 (3): 65-72.
Ijarotimi O. S., Oluwajuyitan T. D., Ogunmola G. T. (2019). Nutritional, functional and sensory properties of gluten-free composite flour produced from plantain (Musa AAB), tigernut tubers (Cyperus esculentus) and defatted soybean cake (Glycine max). Croat. J. Food Sci. Techol. 11 (1).
Gibson G. R., Beatty E. R., Wang X., Cummings J. H. (1995). Selective stimulation of bifidobacteria in the human colon by oligofructose and inulin. Gastroenterology, 108: 975-982. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0016-5085(95)90192-2.
Omueti O., Otegbayo B. Jaiyeola O., Afolabi O. (2009). Functional properties of complementary diets developed from soybean (Glycine max), groundnut (Arachis hypogea) and crayfish (Macrobrachium SPP). In EJEAFChe, 8 (8): 563-573.
Fagbemi T. N. (1999). Effect of Blanching and Ripening on Functional Properties of Plantain (Musa aab) Flour. Foods Hum Nutr 54: 261-269.
Mbaeyi I. E. (2005). Production and evaluation of breakfast cereal using Figeon pea (Cajanus cajan) and Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.). M. Sc. in Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agricultural University of Nigeria, Nsukka: 167.
Browse journals by subject